One of my True Crypt partitions failed to mount after a recent system crash. I entered the right password and received the message "Incorrect password or not a True Crypt volume". I knew the password was correct which only left the option that it was not recognized as a True Crypt volume anymore.
The drive itself showed up fine in Windows Explorer and Disk Management. I started with advanced troubleshooting programs like Test Disk trying to figure out what was wrong. It was later that I discovered that these advanced troubleshooting programs were not needed for the problem that I was experiencing.
It was clear that the headers where somehow corrupted. True Crypt offers so called mount options and one of these mount options is to use embedded backup headers if they are still available in the encrypted volume. Now this might not work in all cases as these can also become corrupted but it did work in my case.
I selected "use backup header embedded in volume if available" that is an option in the Mount Options in True Crypt's password field and entered the password of the True Crypt partition again. This fixed the problem that the True Crypt volume was not recognized and the encrypted partition mounted as normal on the system.
To avoid header problems with True Crypt volumes it is suggested to backup the volume headers so that they can be restored in case of corruption. This can be done by selecting the True crypt partition under Select Device, then Tools from the main True Crypt window and finally Backup Volume Header.
Make sure you save the data to another drive or location, as it won't do you anything good to keep it on the True Crypt partition. You can use cloud hosting services such as Dropbox to host those, or keep those safe on a USB Flash Drive or even your smartphone.
I guess I was lucky that I was able to restore the header without the backup. The first thing I did was to create a backup header for all of my True Crypt partitions for additional restoration options in case of an emergency.
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